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Table 1 Accepted mean pressure gradients across aortic and mitral prosthetic valves.

From: Paravalvular mitral valve leakage presenting as congestive heart failure, missed by TTE but diagnosed by TEE: a case report

Valve type Aortic   Mitral   
  V max (m/s) Mean Gradient (MG) (mmHg) V max (m/s) Mean Gradient(MG) (mmHg) Causes of increase MG
Mechanical      
Bileaflet
(St. Jude)
2.5 12 1.6 +/- 0.3 4 +/- 1 Hyperdynamic Ventricle, Paravalvular leak,
Suture déhiscence/abscess
Tilting disk 2.6 +/- 0.4 14 +/- 5 1.6 +/- 0.3 3 +/- 2  
Ball cage 3.1 +/- 0.5 24 +/- 4 1.9 +/- 0.5 5 +/- 2  
Tissue valves      
Stented 2.6 +/- 0.4 13 +/- 6 1.8 +/- 0.2 6 +/- 2 Valve regurgitation, endocarditis, thrombosis
Non stented 2.2 +/- 0.4 3 (2–20) 1.5 +/- 0.2 4 +/- 2  
AO homograft 1.8 +/- 0.4 7 +/- 3    
  1. The Vmax and mean gradients across the aortic and mitral valves mentioned in the table are the normal pressures gradients expected in a size 23 mm prosthetic valve.[14]