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Table Cardinal HRCT Features of Pulmonary Sarcoidosis

From: Tumor-like pulmonary sarcoidosis diagnosed by CT-guided transthoracic lung biopsy

Classical features (potentially reversible)
• Intrathoracic lymphadenopathy (hilar, mediastinal, para-aortic, subcarinal)
• Proclivity for upper and mid-lung zones; perihilar (axial) distribution
• Lesions follow bronchovascular bundles, lymphatics
• Nodules (microscopic; macroscopic)
• Consolidation (mass-like lesions; confluent alveolar opacities)
• Ground glass opacities
• Thickened bronchovascular bundles; interlobular septa
• Non septal lines; subpleural linear opacities
Chronic findings (reflect irreversible fibrosis)
• Bronchiectasis; bronchiolectasis
• Cysts; bullae; paracicatricial emphysema
• Anatomic distortion (fissure, bronchi, vessel, displacement)
• Volume loss (particularly upper lobes; hilar retraction)
• Mycetoma (within pre-existing cavity)
• Calcified lymph nodes