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Table 1 Major Modified Ghent criteria for Marfan syndrome

From: Recurrent vitreous occlusion of glaucoma drainage device tube in a patient with glaucoma in aphakia: a case report

System Major features Minor features Requirement
Skeletal Pectus carinatum
Pectus excavatum needing surgery
Arm span to height ratio >1.05
Wrist (Walker) and thumb
(Steinberg) signs
Scoliosis >20° or spondylolisthesis
Reduced elbow extension <170°
Pes planus
Protrusio acetabuli
Pectus excavatum
Thoracic lordosis
Scoliosis <20°
Joint hypermobility
Highly arched palate
Dental crowding
Typical facies (dolichocephaly, malar hypoplasia, enophthalmos, retrognathia, downward slanting
palpebral fissures)
2 major features;
Or, 1 major and 2 minor features
Ocular Ectopia lentis Flat cornea
Axial length >23.5 mm
Hypoplastic iris or
ciliary muscle
causing reduced miosis
Nuclear sclerosis under
the age of 50
Glaucoma under the age of 50
Retinal detachment
Major feature;
Or, 2 minor features
Cardiovascular Dilatation of the ascending aorta
involving the sinuses of Valsalva
Dissection of the ascending aorta
Mitral valve prolapse
Dilatation of the main
pulmonary artery under
the age of 40
Calcification of the mitral annulus
under the age of 40
Dilatation or dissection of
the thoracic or
abdominal aorta under
the age of 50
1 minor feature
Pulmonary None Spontaneous pneumothorax
Apical blebs
1 minor feature
Skin None Striae atrophicae
Recurrent or incisional hernia
1 minor feature
Dura Dural ectasia - enlargement
of the dural sac in the lumbosacral
region (CT or MRI)
  Major feature