- Case Report
- Open Access
Diagnosis and misdiagnosis of necrotizing soft tissue infections: three case reports
© Schröpfer et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2008
- Received: 25 June 2008
- Accepted: 20 October 2008
- Published: 20 October 2008
Today, gas gangrene is rare, but still many of the patients die, despite having received timely treatment.
This report highlights the cases of three different patients, who were transferred to our surgical department in 2006. The first patient (Patient_A), with the suspected diagnosis "femoral hematoma", a second patient (Patient_B) because of an "acute abdomen" and the third patient (Patient_C) with suspected gas gangrene of the right leg.
The first two cases demonstrate gas gangrene should always be kept in mind, especially in high-risk-patients. Though, the third case shows that severe consequences because of a precipitate diagnosis can be avoided by careful evaluation.
- Compartment Syndrome
- Clostridium Perfringens
- Provisional Diagnosis
- Splenic Metastasis
Anaerobic infections by exotoxin-producing Clostridium perfringens are rare . Due to systemic progression of the infection gas gangrene still remains life-threatening when detected late. We report on three cases of necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTI). The first two patients suffering from NSTI were admitted to our hospital with different provisional diagnoses, one with compartment syndrome, the second with appendicitis. Despite immediate treatment both patients died within 24 hours after admittance to our hospital. The third patient was free of NSTI, although evincing all typical symptoms of gas gangrene.
Clostridium perfringens is an aerotolerant spore-forming, gram-positive bacterium found in soil and the intestinal tract of humans and other vertebrates [2, 3]. Proliferation of Clostridium perfringens requires changing normal environmental conditions to an anaerobic milieu. Such conditions can be caused by earlier widespread destruction of soft tissue, yet clostridial gas gangrene can also be found without a prior trauma . Different risk factors, e.g. diabetes, malignancy, immunodeficiency and vascular diseases are known. Due to the growing number of diabetics and the elderly, NSTI, especially in absence of trauma, may become more important in the future.
All three patients suffered from at least one risk factor, none of them remembering a recent trauma. However, possible entry points for bacteria can be identified in patient one and three. In case one and two NSTI should have been considered as a differential diagnosis from the beginning. Due to the association of NSTI with large and contaminated wounds, the wrong diagnosis was made initially. As surgical sanitation of the infection is essential in NSTI, early diagnosis is the most important factor for survival .
A review of the English literature by Lanting et al. revealed three cases of spontaneous gas gangrene of the shoulder . The primary diseases in these cases were diabetes with peptic ulcer disease, diabetes and ischemic heart disease and radiation colitis [7–9]. A strong relation between gastrointestinal malignancies and NSTI was shown by Kornbluth et al. , therefore colonoscopy is recommended for all patients with spontaneous clostridium infection .
The third case demonstrates the necessity of comparing radiological, clinical and intraoperative findings. According to literature, 79.2% of the patients with NSTI were in shock and all patients were suffering from enormous pain at the wound site . Patients with a white blood-cell-count ≤ 15.400/μl have only a 1% chance of developing NSTI . The number of white blood-cells in the third patient was slightly increased; no pain or signs of shock could be observed. In order to be able to inspect the muscle tissue, we decided on surgical treatment. After incision, muscle tissue could be observed and a biopsy was taken. Due to microbiological findings clostridial infection could be excluded. Detection of free gas in the tissue is not an indisputable indicator for bacterial infection. Therefore, a precise comparison between clinical and radiological findings is required before a decision on radical surgical treatment is made. Through fasciotomy a sufficient wound control in the first days after admission was possible.
In patients suffering from NSTI, early diagnosis is essential for sufficient treatment and survival . Although NSTI is well known, it was not considered in the first two cases due to absence of trauma. Despite all efforts, both patients died because surgical resection of the necrotic tissue was not possible. Nether less, free gas in the tissue and crepitus are not necessarily caused by NSTI and the diagnosis is not always straightforward .
Written consent for publication was obtained from the relatives in case 1 and 2 and from the patient in case 3
We thank Mrs. L. Stevenson-Knebel for technical assistance.
- Epidemiologisches Bulletin Nr. 37, Robert Koch-Institut, 15. 2000, September.Google Scholar
- Burke MP, Opeskin K: Nontraumatic clostridial myonecrosis. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 1999, 20: 158-162. 10.1097/00000433-199906000-00011.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Flores-Diaz M, Alape-Giron A: Role of Clostridium perfringens phospholipase C in the pathogenesis of gas gangrene. Toxicon. 2003, 42: 979-986. 10.1016/j.toxicon.2003.11.013.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Boenicke L, Maier M, Gassel HJ, et al: Retroperitoneal gas gangrene after colonoscopic polypectomy without bowel perforation in an otherwise healthy individual: report of a case. Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2006, 391 (2): 157-160. 10.1007/s00423-005-0019-z.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Elliot DC, Kufera JA, Myers RM: Necrotizing soft-tissue infections: risk factors for mortality and strategies for management. Ann Surg. 1996, 224: 672-683. 10.1097/00000658-199611000-00011.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lanting B, Athwal GS, Naudie DD: Spontaneous Clostridium perfringens myonecrosis of the shoulder: a case report. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2007, 461: 20-24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Abella BS, Kuchinic P, Hiraoka T, Howes DS: Atraumatic clostridial myonecrosis: case report and literature review. J Emerg Med. 2003, 24: 401-405. 10.1016/S0736-4679(03)00037-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Barza M, Pins M: Case 5-1993: an 81 year old man with pain and crepitus in the shoulder. N Engl J Med. 1993, 328: 340-346. 10.1056/NEJM199302043280510.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Goon PK, O'Brien M, Titley OG: Spontaneous Clostridium septicum septic arthritis of the shoulder and gas gangrene: a case report. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005, 87: 874-877. 10.2106/JBJS.D.02337.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kornbluth AA, Danzig JB, Bernstein LH: Clostridium septicum infection and associated malignancy: report of 2 cases and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore). 1989, 68: 30-37.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jacob ZC, Dedekian M, Seoudi H: Nontraumatic clostridial myonecrosis: an indication for colonoscopy?. Am Surg. 2002, 68: 463-465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tang WM, Ho PL, Fung KK, Yuen KY, Leong JC: Necrotising fasciitis of a limb. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2001, 83: 709-714. 10.1302/0301-620X.83B5.10987.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wall DB, Klein SR, Black S, de Virgilio C: A simple model to help distinguish necrotizing fasciitis from nonnecrotizing soft tissue infection. J Am Coll Surg. 2000, 191: 227-231. 10.1016/S1072-7515(00)00318-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tibbles PM, Edelsberg JS: Hyperbaric-oxygen therapy. N Engl J Med. 1996, 334 (25): 1642-1648. 10.1056/NEJM199606203342506.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Panchbhav VK, Hecox SE: All That Is Gas Is Not Gas Gangrene: Mechanical Spread of Gas in the Soft Tissues. A Case Report. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006, 88: 1345-1348. 10.2106/JBJS.E.01172.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.